Nimā Yushij (Persian: نیما یوشیج)
Nimā Yushij (Persian: نیما یوشیج) (November 12, 1895 – January 6, 1960), also called Nimā (نیما), born Ali Esfandiāri (علی اسفندیاری), was a contemporary Tabarian and Persian poet who started the she’r-e now (شعر نو, “new poetry”) also known as she’r-e nimaa’i (شعر نیمایی, “Nimaic poetry”) trend in Iran. He is considered as the father of modern Persian poetry.
He died of pneumonia in Shemiran, in the northern part of Tehran and was buried in his native village of Yush, Nur County, Mazandaran, as he had willed.
He was the eldest son of Ibrahim Nuri of Yush (a village in Baladeh, Nur County, Mazandaran province of Iran). He was aTabarian but had also Georgian roots. He grew up in Yush, mostly helping his father with the farm and taking care of the cattle. As a boy, he visited many local summer and winter camps and mingled with shepherds and itinerant workers. Images of life around the campfire, especially those emerging from the shepherds’ simple and entertaining stories about village and tribal conflicts, impressed him greatly. These images, etched in the young poet’s memory waited until his power of diction developed sufficiently to release them.
Nima’s early education took place in a maktab. He was a truant student and the mullah (teacher) often had to seek him out in the streets, drag him to school, and punish him. At the age of twelve, Nima was taken to Tehran and registered at the St. Louis School. The atmosphere at the Roman Catholic school did not change Nima’s ways, but the instructions of a thoughtful teacher did. Nezam Vafa, a major poet himself, took the budding poet under his wing and nurtured his poetic talent.
Instruction at the Catholic school was in direct contrast to instruction at the maktab. Similarly, living among the urban people was at variance with life among the tribal and rural peoples of the north. In addition, both these lifestyles differed greatly from the description of the lifestyle about which he read in his books or listened to in class. Although it did not change his attachment to tradition, the difference set fire to young Nima’s imagination. In other words, even though Nima continued to write poetry in the tradition of Saadi and Hafez for quite some time his expression was being affected gradually and steadily. Eventually, the impact of the new overpowered the tenacity of tradition and led Nima down a new path. Consequently, Nima began to replace the familiar devices that he felt were impeding the free flow of ideas with innovative, even though less familiar devices that enhanced a free flow of concepts. “Ay Shab” (O Night) and “Afsaneh” (Myth) belong to this transitional period in the poet’s life (1922)
علي اسفندياري که بعدها نام خود را به نيما يوشج تبديل کرد، در 21 آبانماه سال 1276 خورشيدي در دهکده يوش، واقع در ايالت نور بدنيا آمد. پدرش ميرزا ابراهيم خان اعظام السلطنه، يکي از افراد دودمانهاي قديمي مازندران بود که در اين منطقه به کشاورزي اشتغال داشت.
نيما خواندن و نوشتن را نزد ملاي ده زادگاه خود، فرا گرفت و در تهران دوره مدرسه عالي سن لويي را به پايان رسانيد. در مدرسه مراقبت و تشويق يک معلم خوشرفتار، نظام وفا، او را به خط شعر گفتن انداخت.
در ابتدا به سبک معمول و قديم شعر مي ساخت؛ اما پس از چندي راه تازه اي را در پيش گرفت و منظومه افسانه، سروده شده به سال 1300 خورشيدي، سبک تازه اي در ارائه محسوسات او است. نيما با وجود پيروي از وزن تساوي طولي، مصرع ها را ضروري نديد و قافيه را به حساب ديگري در کار گرفت و در شعر فارسي تحولي بنيادي ايجاد کرد.
نيما با وجود ارائه سبک و شيوه نو از مدافعان جدي ادب و هنر اصيل ايران بود و تا آخر عمر علاوه بر شعرهاي نو، شعرهاي سنتي نيز مي سرود.
.نيما يوشج در سال 1337 بدرود حيات گفت. ياد و خاطرش گرامي باد